The Anglo-Indian historians have greatly emphasised the importance of military grievances and the greased cartridges affair as the most potent causes which led to the great rising of 1857. Because of all these reasons Kings, Princes, their courtiers and disbanded soldiers an… VIEW MORE. Under the British rule, there was a severe deterioration of the condition of Indian agriculture. Mason, Philip (1974), page 226 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Often the British officers treated the sepoys rudely. Proportion of Indians in the British Army -. Moreover, there was no scope of promotion and made to serve overseas. in 1849, Revolt of the Santhals (1855-56), Kol uprising (1831-32) etc. The first sepoy who rebelled by aiming his loaded weapon at a British officer was Mangal Pandey who was later executed.[25]. Also, other higher ranks were reserved for the English sepoys and not for the Indians. of Indian Soldiers -, The East India Company Though paid marginally less than the Bombay and Madras Presidency troops, there was a tradition of trust between the soldiery and the establishment â€” the soldiers felt needed and that the company would care for their welfare. Indian soldiers were given Enfield rifle, the … Causes for the Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857, also known as The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was caused by various factors which were political, social, economic and military in nature. Eleven of the sepoys were executed and hundreds more sentenced to hard labour. In The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars. NEWSLETTER : Get latest updates in your inbox. 094: British Occupation of India - Part 9: The Causes and Impact of the Revolt of 1857 In this episode, we talk about The Causes and Impact of the Revolt of 1857 The Revolt of 1857 is also known by other names such as The Sepoy Mutiny, The Indian Mutiny, The Great Rebellion, The Indian Insurrection, India’s First War of Independence. Hindus reacted negatively to this decision Immediate Cause of Revolt. Military Causes of the revolt of 1857: • Indian soldiers formed seven-eighth of the total British troops in India. Prior to the period of British rule, any refusal to proceed on service until pay issues were resolved was considered a legitimate form of displaying grievance by Indian troops serving under Indian rulers. Political: Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of pesewa Baji Rao II. 2. Mason, Philip (1974), page 263 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston, Details of the rifle issued as a result of the mutiny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Causes_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857&oldid=990241245, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 16:27. Mason, Philip (1974), page 190 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. When the mood of the sepoys turned against their masters, they remembered Kabul and that the British were not invincible. British government brought many social reforms in Hindu society like widow remarriage, abolition of Sati, education for girls, Christian Missionaries etc. Partly owing to this, Bengal sepoys were not subject to the penalty of flogging as were the European soldiers. the revolt of 1857 was started by Indian soldiers at Meerut on 10 may,1857.the causes of the revolt were a) All sections of India were unhappy with the British rule. This seems to have been a very important reason for the spread of the rebellion, keeping in view the speed at which the ignited in many villages in northern India where farmers rushed to get back their unfairly grabbed title deeds. Military causes included the major discontent among the Indian soldiers and a feeling of discrimination which they felt from the English soldiers. An uprising in several sepoy companies of the Bengal army was sparked by the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February 1857. Sympathetic rulers, such as Lord William Bentinck were replaced by arrogant aristocrats, such as Lord Dalhousie, who despised the troops and the populace. [9], Until the 1840s there had been a widespread belief amongst the Bengal sepoys in the iqbal or continued good fortune of the East India Company. MILITARY CAUSES. Land levies left no savings with the cultivators so they were not able to invest in the advancement of agriculture. It was only later on that other elements of society joined the revolt. The resumption of tax free land and confiscation of jagirs (the grant or right to locally control land revenue) caused discontent among the jagirdars and zamindars. Before the rebellion, there were reports that "holy men" were mysteriously circulating chapatis and lotus flowers among the sepoys. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. 2 mins read. The sepoys were local soldiers, the majority Hindu or Muslim, that were recruited into the Company's army. Following [8], Unlike the Madras and Bombay Armies of the BEIC, which were far more diverse, the Bengal Army recruited its regular soldiers almost exclusively amongst the landowning Bhumihars and Rajputs of the Ganges Valley. Political, Economic, Social and Military causes. Loading the Enfield often required tearing open the greased cartridge with one's teeth, and many sepoys believed that the cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat. The sepoys' British officers dismissed these claims as rumours, and suggested that the sepoys make a batch of fresh cartridges, and greased these with pig and cow fat. Political [10], Caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army were not merely tolerated but encouraged in the early years of the company's rule. This meant that when they came to be threatened by modernising regimes in Calcutta, from the 1840s onwards, the sepoys had become accustomed to very high ritual status, and were extremely sensitive to suggestions that their caste might be polluted. Economic Causes: Added to political and administrative distrust for the British East India Company, … Hence, t… Another important source of discontent among the Indian rulers was that the British policies of conquest had created significant unrest. C. RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION. [7] Several years before the sepoys' mutiny, Lord William Bentinck had attacked several jagirs in western Bengal. They cannot rise above the rank of Subedar. This was done by using the provisions of the Doctrine ofLapse. The company had developed a military organisation where, in theory, fealty of the sepoys to the company was considered the height of "izzat" or honour, where the European officer replaced the village headman with benevolent figures of authority, and where regiments were mostly recruited from sepoys belonging to the same caste, and community. Due to the need for technical specialists, the artillery units generally had a higher proportion of British personnel. [21], The Bengal Army also administered, sometimes loosely, 29 regiments of irregular horse and 42 of irregular infantry. [12], There had been earlier indications that all was not well in the armies of the East India Company. A group of historians and writers has asserted that the Revolt was the result of a widespread and well-organized conspiracy. Dalhousie had To load both the old musket and the new rifle, soldiers had to bite the cartridge open and pour the gunpowder it contained into the rifle's muzzle, then stuff the paper cartridge (overlaid with a thin mixture of beeswax and mutton tallow for waterproofing) into the musket as wadding, the ball being secured to the top of the cartridge and guided into place for ramming down the muzzle. [20], In 1857, the Bengal Army contained 10 regular regiments of Indian cavalry and 74 of infantry. The military causes of Sepoy Mutiny primarily led to the outbreak of the 1857 revolt. The forces were divided into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal. The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes. Briefly 10. Rich people like the merchants and moneylenders were therefore able to speculate in British land sales and drive out the most vulnerable peasant farmers. The sepoys were paid much less than the British soldiers and were also given inferior food and accommodation. These changes caused widespread resentment not only among the landed aristocracy but also caused great havoc to a larger section of the middle-class people. The serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that this requirement would be eventually extended to them, violating observance of the Kala Pani prohibition on sea travel. In 1824, there was another mutiny by a regiment ordered overseas in the First Anglo-Burmese War, who were refused transport to carry individual cooking vessels and told to share communal pots. Related posts: What were few political and military factors responsible for the Revolt of 1857? Lands were confiscated from the landlords and auctioned. Furthermore, legal changes introduced by the British were accompanied by prohibitions on Indian religious customs and were seen as steps towards forced conversion to Christianity. The Revolt of 1857 was started by the company’s sepoys. [18], The General Services Enlistment Act of 1856 required new recruits to serve overseas, if asked. Political Causes ; Social Causes ; Religious Causes ; Economic Causes ; Administrative Causes ; Military Causes; 9 POLITICAL CAUSES. The General Service The Indian soldiers were discriminated. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control.One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt [2] Author Pramod Nayar points out that by 1851 there were nineteen Protestant religious societies operating in India whose goal was the conversion of Indians to Christianity. THE IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF THE REVOLT OF 1857 Mason, Philip (1974), pages 291-292 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. The rifling inside the musket barrel ensured accuracy at much greater distances than was possible with old muskets. As they were an integral part of the Indian society, they too suffered the consequences of the oppressive British rule. The Absentee Sovereignty of British means that India was being ruled by the British Government from England. Another suggestion they put forward was to introduce a new drill, in which the cartridge was not bitten with the teeth but torn open with the hand. This would have insulted both Hindu and Muslim religious practices; cows were considered holy by Hindus, while pigs were considered unclean by Muslims. During the late eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century, the armies of the East India Company, in particular those of the Bengal Presidency, were victorious and indomitable â€” the term "high noon of the sepoy army" has been used by a military historian. Such measures were considered a valid negotiating tactic by the sepoys, likely to be repeated every time such issues arose. This is again seemed to be a biased analysis. Avadh was annexed in 1857, on charges of maladministration Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Sambhalpur were annexed owing to Doctrine of lapse. The Company interfered in the internal matters of Indian States and followed the policy of divide and rule. Historians have identified diverse political, economic, military, religious and social causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Enlistment Act of 1856 required Indian soldiers to be sent overseas for When soldiers of the Bengal army mutinied in Meerut on May 10, 1857, tension had been growing for some time. However much of this sense of the invincibility of the British was lost in the First Anglo-Afghan War where poor political judgement and inept British leadership led to the massacre of Elphinstone's army (which included three Bengal regiments) while retreating from Kabul. Ill-treatment 1. Other irregular units were raised in frontier areas from communities such as Assamese or Pashtuns to maintain order locally. discriminated against their Indian. which was taken in complete disregard to their religious beliefs. Mason, Philip (1974), pages 226-228 "A Matter of Honour", London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. [5], Dalrymple further points out that as late as 6 September, when calling the inhabitants of Delhi to rally against the upcoming Company assault, Zafar issued a proclamation stating that this was a religious war being prosecuted on behalf of 'the faith', and that all Muslim and Hindu residents of the imperial city, or of the countryside were encouraged to stay true to their faith and creeds. deployment if required. The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. Some of these units belonged to states allied to the British or recently absorbed into British-administered territory, and of these, two large contingents from the states of Awadh and Gwalior readily joined the growing rebellion. 2 mins read. [14], The pay of the sepoy was relatively low and after Awadh and the Punjab were annexed, the soldiers no longer received extra pay (batta or bhatta) if posted there, because this was no longer considered "foreign service". Military factors responsible for the British government brought many social reforms in Hindu society like widow remarriage abolition... Pages 305-306 `` a Matter of Honour '', London: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston or Pashtuns to order... To about 50,000 British were among the sepoys as Assamese or Pashtuns to maintain locally. Had additionally created 222 `` unattached '' mission stations across India in the armies the! It was a taboo for the Brahmins to cross the seas year 1856, Company! 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